Passive cooling systems: Building design or retrofit strategies that minimize the need for active cooling systems, such as proper building orientation, insulation, and shading.

Natural refrigerants: Refrigerants that do not contribute to ozone depletion or global warming, such as ammonia, carbon dioxide, and hydrocarbons.

Energy-efficient systems: Cooling systems that use less energy than traditional systems, such as variable refrigerant flow systems, heat pumps, and high-efficiency chillers.

Renewable energy-powered systems: Cooling systems that are powered by renewable energy sources, such as solar-powered absorption chillers or geothermal heat pumps.

Thermal energy storage: Systems that store thermal energy for later use, such as chilled water or ice storage systems.
Electrocaloric cooling technology: A developing technology that uses an electric field to induce a temperature change, potentially offering a more sustainable alternative to traditional refrigeration systems.

Hybrid cooling systems: Systems that combine multiple cooling technologies, such as passive and active systems, to optimize performance and energy efficiency.

Smart controls and optimization: Technologies that use data and analytics to optimize the performance of cooling systems, such as predictive maintenance or demand response systems.

Next-generation (Not-in Kind) technologies: This refers to a broad category that encompasses emerging and innovative technologies that have the potential to transform the sustainable cooling landscape. Examples are: solid-state cooling, integrated energy systems, advanced materials, magnetic cooling, desiccant based systems, …

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